Studying a large sample of publicly available data on failures to deliver, we find that stocks reaching threshold levels of failures become significantly overvalued. Where short sale constraints are especially binding, we report extreme overpricing and subsequent reversals. These findings support the overvaluation hypothesis, although the mispricing is likely to be difficult to arbitrage because of extreme shorting costs. In addition, threshold stocks with low short interest become more overvalued than threshold stocks with high short interest. This suggests that the level of short interest reflects supply-side effects when the examination conditions on the difficulty of borrowing shares.
Vol. 50 No. 2 - May 2015
Using a sample of venture capital (VC)-backed initial public offerings (IPOs), we analyze the role played by perceived valuation changes on IPO underpricing. We find that perceived valuation change from the last pre-IPO VC round to the IPO affects IPO underpricing in a nonlinear way. Further analysis indicates that information-based theories, not behavioral biases, explain this nonlinearity. We also find that the previously documented partial adjustment effect and its nonlinear impact on IPO underpricing are related to the trajectory of the perceived valuation changes, which stands in stark contrast to prior evidence of the importance of behavioral biases.
We show that previous findings regarding the profitability of trend-following trading rules over intermediate horizons in futures markets also extend to individual U.S. stocks. Portfolios formed using technical indicators such as moving average or channel ratios, without employing cross-sectional rankings of any kind, tend to perform about as well as the more commonly examined momentum strategies. The profitability of these strategies appears significant, both statistically and economically, through 2007, but evidence of profitability vanishes after 2007. Market-state dependence, while clearly present, does not explain the post-2007 reduction in returns to these strategies.
Prior studies have shown that low beta and low volatility stocks earn higher average returns than high beta and high volatility stocks, contradicting the prediction of the capital asset pricing model and the fundamental relationship between risk and return. In this paper, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is driven by the seasonality of stock returns. We show that the risk-return tradeoff does hold in the nonsummer months, and that switching to a portfolio of low-risk stocks in summer outperforms—both in terms of absolute and in risk-adjusted returns—buy and hold strategies as well as the Sell in May strategy of switching to treasury bills in summer.