The New York Stock Exchange’s Rule 80A attempted to de-link the futures and equity markets by limiting index arbitrage trades in the same direction as the last trade to reduce stock market volatility. Rule 80A leads to a small but statistically significant decline in intraday U.S. equity market volatility. In addition, the results are asymmetric: volatility is dampened more in a rising market than in a declining one. These results suggest that, to a limited basis, rule restrictions on trading can sufficiently de-link the futures and equity markets enough to reduce the transmission of volatility.
Investors globally prefer dividend-paying stocks over non-dividend-paying stocks more in declining than in advancing markets, even accounting for firm-level growth opportunities, size and risk effects. Dividend paying stocks outperform non-dividend paying stocks, from 0.63 (China) to 3.79 (Canada) more per-month in declining than in advancing markets. In declining markets, dividend paying firms outperform by more than any under-performance in advancing markets. The results are robust across dividend taxation regimes, legal environments, emerging and developed markets, periods prior to and after the 2008 global financial crisis, the exclusion of the dividend declaration month and in respect to segmented or integrated international capital markets. Click here for the paper.